Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
RAMIREZ-GIL, H.; FELDBERG, E.; ALMEIDA-VAL, V.M.F. and VAL, A.L.. Karyological, biochemical, and physiological aspects of Callophysus macropterus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Solimões and Negro Rivers (Central Amazon). Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 1998, vol.31, n.11, pp. 1449-1458. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1998001100014.
Karyological characteristics, i.e., diploid number, chromosome morphology and nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), biochemical characteristics, i.e., electrophoretic analysis of blood hemoglobin and the tissue enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), and physiological characteristics, i.e., relative concentration of hemoglobin and intraerythrocytic concentrations of organic phosphates were analyzed for the species Callophysus macropterus collected from Marchantaria Island (white water system - Solimões River) and Anavilhanas Archipelago (black water system - Negro River). Karyological and biochemical data did not reveal significant differences between specimens collected at the two sites. However, the relative distribution of hemoglobin bands I and III (I = 16.33 ± 1.05 and III = 37.20 ± 1.32 for Marchantaria specimens and I = 6.33 ± 1.32 and III = 48.05 ± 1.55 for Anavilhanas specimens) and levels of intraerythrocytic GTP (1.32 ± 0.16 and 2.76 ± 0.18 for Marchantaria and Anavilhanas specimens, respectively), but not ATP or total phosphate, were significantly different, indicating a physiological adaptation to the environmental conditions of these habitats. It is suggested that C. macropterus specimens from the two collecting sites belong to a single population, and that they adjusted some physiological characteristics to adapt to local environmental conditions.
Keywords : Callophysus; fish; Amazon; population genetics; adaptation.