Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
SOUZA-ATTA, M.L.B. et al. Detection of specific IgE antibodies in parasite diseases. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 1999, vol.32, n.9, pp.1101-1105. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1999000900008.
Activation of Th1 or Th2 cells is associated with production of specific immunoglobulin isotypes, offering the opportunity to use antibody measurement for evaluation of T cell function. Schistosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are diseases associated with Th2 activation. However, an IgE response is not always detected in these patients. In the present study we evaluated specific IgE antibodies to S. mansoni and L. chagasi antigens by ELISA after depletion of serum IgG with protein G immobilized on Sepharose beads or RF-absorbent (purified sheep IgG antibodies anti-human IgG). In schistosomiasis patients, specific IgE to SWAP antigen was demonstrable in only 10 of 21 patients (48%) (mean absorbance ± SD = 0.102 ± 0.195) when unabsorbed serum was used. Depletion of IgG with protein G increased the number of specific IgE-positive tests to 13 (62%) and the use of RF-absorbent increased the number of positive results to 20 (95%) (mean absorbances ± SD = 0.303 ± 0.455 and 0.374 ± 0.477, respectively). Specific IgE anti-L. chagasi antibodies were not detected in unabsorbed serum from visceral leishmaniasis patients. When IgG was depleted with protein G, IgE antibodies were detected in only 3 (11%) of 27 patients, and the use of RF-absorbent permitted the detection of this isotype in all 27 visceral leishmaniasis sera tested (mean absorbance ± SD = 0.104 ± 0.03). These data show that the presence of IgG antibodies may prevent the detection of a specific IgE response in these parasite diseases. RF-absorbent, a reagent that blocks IgG-binding sites and also removes rheumatoid factor, was more efficient than protein G for the demonstration of specific IgE antibodies.
Keywords : IgE antibodies; immunoassays; schistosomiasis mansoni; visceral leishmaniasis; Kala-azar.