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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
BACHEGA, T.A.S.S. et al. 21-Hydroxylase deficiency in Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2000, vol.33, n.10, pp. 1211-1216. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2000001000011.
We determined the frequency of large rearrangements and point mutations in 130 Brazilian patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency and correlated genotype with phenotype. The frequency of CYP21 deletions was lower (4.4%) than in most of the previous series described, whereas the frequency of large gene conversions was similar to the frequency reported in the literature (6.6%). The most frequent point mutations were I2 splice (41.8% in salt wasting - SW), I172N (32.6% in simple virilizing - SV) and V281L (40.2% in the late onset form - LO). The frequency of the nine most common point mutations was similar to that reported for other countries. The 93 fully genotyped patients were classified into 3 mutation groups based on the degree of enzymatic activity (A<2%, B @ 2%, C>20%). In group A, 62% of cases presented the SW form; in group B, 96% the SV form, and in group C, 88% the LO form. We diagnosed 80% of the affected alleles after screening for large rearrangements and 15 point mutations. To diagnose these remaining alleles we sequenced the CYP21 gene of one patient with the SV form and identified a heterozygous G®A transition in codon 424. This mutation leads to a substitution of glycine by serine in a conserved region and was also found in a compound heterozygous state in 4 other patients. The mutation G424S presented a linkage disequilibrium with CYP21P and C4A gene deletions and HLA DR17, suggesting a probable founder effect. Search for the G424S mutation in other populations will reveal if it is restricted to the Brazilian patients or if it has a wider ethnic distribution.
Keywords : 21-hydroxylase deficiency; congenital adrenal hyperplasia; Brazilian patients; CYP21 mutations; genotype; phenotype.