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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
ROMAO, E.A. et al. Renal and extrarenal manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2006, vol.39, n.4, pp. 533-538. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2006000400014.
The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the most common clinical features in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in a sample of the Brazilian population. The medical records of 92 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease attended during the period from 1985 to 2003 were reviewed. The following data were recorded: age at diagnosis, gender, associated clinical manifestations, occurrence of stroke, age at loss of renal function (beginning of dialysis), and presence of a family history. The involvement of abdominal viscera was investigated by ultrasonography. Intracranial alterations were prospectively investigated by magnetic resonance angiography in 42 asymptomatic patients, and complemented with digital subtraction arteriography when indicated. Mean age at diagnosis was 35.1 ± 14.9 years, and mean serum creatinine at referral was 2.4 ± 2.8 mg/dL. The most frequent clinical manifestations during the disease were arterial hypertension (63.3%), lumbar pain (55.4%), an abdominal mass (47.8%), and urinary infection (35.8%). Loss of renal function occurred in 27 patients (mean age: 45.4 ± 9.5 years). The liver was the second organ most frequently affected (39.1%). Stroke occurred in 7.6% of the patients. Asymptomatic intracranial aneurysm was detected in 3 patients and arachnoid cysts in 3 other patients. In conclusion, the most common clinical features were lumbar pain, arterial hypertension, abdominal mass, and urinary infection, and the most serious complications were chronic renal failure and stroke. Both intracranial aneurysms and arachnoid cysts occurred in asymptomatic patients at a frequency of 7.14%.
Keywords : Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Hepatic cyst; Intracranial aneurysm; Arachnoid cyst; End-stage renal disease.