Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
ROSA, R.M. et al. Pharmacology and toxicology of diphenyl diselenide in several biological models. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2007, vol.40, n.10, pp. 1287-1304. Epub Aug 21, 2007. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2006005000171.
The pharmacology of synthetic organoselenium compounds indicates that they can be used as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors, neuroprotectors, anti-tumor and anti-infectious agents, and immunomodulators. In this review, we focus on the effects of diphenyl diselenide (DPDS) in various biological model organisms. DPDS possesses antioxidant activity, confirmed in several in vitro and in vivo systems, and thus has a protective effect against hepatic, renal and gastric injuries, in addition to its neuroprotective activity. The activity of the compound on the central nervous system has been studied since DPDS has lipophilic characteristics, increasing adenylyl cyclase activity and inhibiting glutamate and MK-801 binding to rat synaptic membranes. Systemic administration facilitates the formation of long-term object recognition memory in mice and has a protective effect against brain ischemia and on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. On the other hand, DPDS may be toxic, mainly because of its interaction with thiol groups. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the molecule acts as a pro-oxidant by depleting free glutathione. Administration to mice during cadmium intoxication has the opposite effect, reducing oxidative stress in various tissues. DPDS is a potent inhibitor of d-aminolevulinate dehydratase and chronic exposure to high doses of this compound has central effects on mouse brain, as well as liver and renal toxicity. Genotoxicity of this compound has been assessed in bacteria, haploid and diploid yeast and in a tumor cell line.
Keywords : Diphenyl diselenide; Organoselenium; Antioxidants; Neuroprotection; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Mutagenesis.