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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
SILVA, R.S.; FIGUEIREDO, A.C.; MADY, C. and LORENZI-FILHO, G.. Breathing disorders in congestive heart failure: gender, etiology and mortality. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2008, vol.41, n.3, pp. 215-222. ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2008000300007.
We investigated the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) while awake as well as mortality. Eighty-nine consecutive outpatients (29 females) with congestive heart failure (CHF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF <45%) were prospectively evaluated. The presence of SDB and of CSR while awake before sleep onset was investigated by polysomnography. SDB prevalence was 81 and 56%, using apnea-hypopnea index cutoffs >5 and >15, respectively. CHF etiologies were similar according to the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern. Males and females were similar in age, body mass index, and LVEF. Males presented more SDB (P = 0.01), higher apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.04), more light sleep (stages 1 and 2; P < 0.05), and less deep sleep (P < 0.001) than females. During follow-up (25 ± 10 months), 27% of the population died. Non-survivors had lower LVEF (P = 0.01), worse New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification (P = 0.03), and higher CSR while awake (P < 0.001) than survivors. As determined by Cox proportional model, NYHA class IV (RR = 3.95, 95%CI = 1.37-11.38, P = 0.011) and CSR while awake with a marginal significance (RR = 2.96, 95%CI = 0.94-9.33, P = 0.064) were associated with mortality. In conclusion, the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern of patients with Chagas' disease were similar to that of patients with CHF due to other etiologies. Males presented more frequent and more severe SDB and worse sleep quality than females. The presence of CSR while awake, but not during sleep, may be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with CHF.
Keywords : Sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes respiration; Congestive heart failure; Gender; Chagas' disease.