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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

On-line version ISSN 1414-431X

Abstract

FERNANDES, T.; SOCI, U.P.R.  and  OLIVEIRA, E.M.. Eccentric and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise training: microRNAs and molecular determinants. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2011, vol.44, n.9, pp.836-847.  Epub Sep 02, 2011 ISSN 1414-431X.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500112.

Among the molecular, biochemical and cellular processes that orchestrate the development of the different phenotypes of cardiac hypertrophy in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the specific contribution of exercise training has recently become appreciated. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy involves complex cardiac remodeling that occurs as an adaptive response to static or dynamic chronic exercise, but the stimuli and molecular mechanisms underlying transduction of the hemodynamic overload into myocardial growth are poorly understood. This review summarizes the physiological stimuli that induce concentric and eccentric physiological hypertrophy, and discusses the molecular mechanisms, sarcomeric organization, and signaling pathway involved, also showing that the cardiac markers of pathological hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain and α-skeletal actin) are not increased. There is no fibrosis and no cardiac dysfunction in eccentric or concentric hypertrophy induced by exercise training. Therefore, the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated as one of the regulatory mechanisms for the control of cardiac function and structure. Here, we show that the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor is locally activated in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy, although with exercise training it can be stimulated independently of the involvement of angiotensin II. Recently, microRNAs (miRs) have been investigated as a possible therapeutic approach since they regulate the translation of the target mRNAs involved in cardiac hypertrophy; however, miRs in relation to physiological hypertrophy have not been extensively investigated. We summarize here profiling studies that have examined miRs in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. An understanding of physiological cardiac remodeling may provide a strategy to improve ventricular function in cardiac dysfunction.

Keywords : Exercise training; Cardiac hypertrophy; Renin-angiotensin system; AT1 receptor; Akt; MicroRNAs.

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