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Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
On-line version ISSN 1414-431X
PISA, G. et al. Diversity of 16S rRNA genes from bacteria of sugarcane rhizosphere soil. Braz J Med Biol Res [online]. 2011, vol.44, n.12, pp. 1215-1221. Epub Nov 04, 2011 ISSN 1414-431X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500148.
Sugarcane is an important agricultural product of Brazil, with a total production of more than 500 million tons. Knowledge of the bacterial community associated with agricultural crops and the soil status is a decisive step towards understanding how microorganisms influence crop productivity. However, most studies aim to isolate endophytic or rhizosphere bacteria associated with the plant by culture-dependent approaches. Culture-independent approaches allow a more comprehensive view of entire bacterial communities in the environment. In the present study, we have used this approach to assess the bacterial community in the rhizosphere soil of sugarcane at different times and under different nitrogen fertilization conditions. At the high taxonomic level, few differences between samples were observed, with the phylum Proteobacteria (29.6%) predominating, followed by Acidobacteria (23.4%), Bacteroidetes (12.1%), Firmicutes (10.2%), and Actinobacteria (5.6%). The exception was the Verrucomicrobia phylum whose prevalence in N-fertilized soils was approximately 0.7% and increased to 5.2% in the non-fertilized soil, suggesting that this group may be an indicator of nitrogen availability in soils. However, at low taxonomic levels a higher diversity was found associated with plants receiving nitrogen fertilizer. Bacillus was the most predominant genus, accounting for 19.7% of all genera observed. Classically reported nitrogen-fixing and/or plant growth-promoting bacterial genera, such as Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Burkholderia were also found although at a lower prevalence.
Keywords : 16S rRNA; Biodiversity; Nitrogen fixation; Bacteria; Sugarcane; Soil.