Food Science and Technology (Campinas)
Print version ISSN 0101-2061
AGUILAR-PALAZUELOS, Ernesto; ZAZUETA-MORALES, José de Jesús; HARUMI, Elizabeth Nabeshima and MARTINEZ-BUSTOS, Fernando. Optimization of extrusion process for production of nutritious pellets. Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. [online]. 2012, vol.32, n.1, pp. 34-42. Epub Jan 31, 2012. ISSN 0101-2061. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612012005000005.
A blend of 50% Potato Starch (PS), 35% Quality Protein Maize (QPM), and 15% Soybean Meal (SM) were used in the preparation of expanded pellets utilizing a laboratory extruder with a 1.5 × 20.0 × 100.0 mm die-nozzle. The independent variables analyzed were Barrel Temperature (BT) (75-140 °C) and Feed Moisture (FM) (16-30%). The effect of extrusion variables was investigated in terms of Expansion Index (EI), apparent density (ApD), Penetration Force (PF) and Specific Mechanical Energy (SME), viscosity profiles, DSC, crystallinity by X-ray diffraction, and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). The PF decreased from 30 to 4 kgf with the increase of both independent variables (BT and FM). SME was affected only by FM, and decreased with the increase in this variable. The optimal region showed that the maximum EI was found for BT in the range of 123-140 °C and 27-31% for FM, respectively. The extruded pellets obtained from the optimal processing region were probably not completely degraded, as shown in the structural characterization. Acceptable expanded pellets could be produced using a blend of PS, QPM, and SM by extrusion cooking.
Keywords : extrusion; expansion; third-generation-snacks; potato-starch; quality-protein-maize; soybean-meal.