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Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia
On-line version ISSN 2175-8239
ROCHA, Paulo Novis. Hyponatremia: basic concepts and practical approach. J. Bras. Nefrol. [online]. 2011, vol.33, n.2, pp.248-260. ISSN 2175-8239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-28002011000200022.
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte imbalance in hospitalized patients. It is associated with several unfavorable endpoints such as: the need for intensive care, longer hospital stay, higher hospitalization costs, discharge to long-term care facilities, and mortality. It is still not clear if there is a direct causal relationship or if hyponatremia is simply a marker of disease severity. Nevertheless, it is quite clear that improper management of a hyponatremic patient may result in severe neurologic damage or death. This paper addresses the basic pathophysiologic concepts about hyponatremia followed by a practical approach to its diagnosis and management.
Keywords : hyponatremia; inappropriate adh syndrome; receptors; vasopressin; liver cirrhosis; heart Failure.