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Revista Brasileira de Ciências do Esporte
Print version ISSN 0101-3289
AZEVEDO, Marco Antonio Oliveira de and GOMES FILHO, Arnóbio. Competitiveness and social inclusion by means of sports. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Esporte [online]. 2011, vol.33, n.3, pp. 589-603. ISSN 0101-3289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-32892011000300005.
In projects of social inclusion, sports are privileged strategies. But sports are competitive games. How could the practice of competitive games support the generous aims of social inclusion? In this paper, we will analyze this problem and clarify the concepts of "game", "sport" and "competition". It is an essay that deals with theoretical issues, employing as methodology the philosophical analysis and dialectical argumentation. We will also make a review of the subject "sports and social inclusion". We will argue that nevertheless sports actually are competitive games there is not any opposition between competition and inclusion. As a matter of fact, sports are "zero-sum" games. But modern sports are institutionalized, allowing their players practice them as stable occupations. In conclusion, institutionalized and disciplined, sports become "positive-sum" arrangements, making the opportunity of becoming a life choice, consequently favoring social inclusion.
Keywords : Philosophy of sports; social inclusion; game; excellence.