SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.31 issue2A qualitative analysis on what Brazilian psychiatrists expect from current diagnostic classificationsTranslation into Portuguese and content validation of the Social Rhythm Metric-17 (SRM-17) author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Revista de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul

Print version ISSN 0101-8108


ZENI, Taís Cardoso de  and  ARAUJO, Renata Brasil. Deep breathing in the management of craving and anxiety symptoms of crack-cocaine-dependent patients. Rev. psiquiatr. Rio Gd. Sul [online]. 2009, vol.31, n.2, pp.116-119. ISSN 0101-8108.

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of deep breathing in the management of craving and anxiety symptoms in crack-cocaine-dependent patients hospitalized for treatment in a detoxification unit. METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental clinical trial using a quantitative analysis. The convenience sample comprised 32 crack-cocaine-dependent males. These subjects had cocaine as their drug of choice, having used this substance between 2 and 3 weeks prior to the beginning of the treatment, and were able to adequately perform the deep breathing technique. The instruments used were: the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief (CCQB), the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a form containing sociodemographic information and data related to the pattern of consumption of psychoactive substances (SDF). A group intervention was conducted with the administration of the CCQB, the VAS, and the BAI. After that, images related to the use of crack-cocaine were shown to the subjects and the same instruments were administered again. Next, the participants performed the deep breathing technique for 10 minutes, and the instruments were administered one more time. Finally, an individual interview was done and the SDF was completed. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated a decrease in the scores on the CCQB, the VAS and the BAI after the deep breathing technique was performed in a sample whose profile represents the general pattern of crack-cocaine users. CONCLUSION: In spite of some methodological limitations, the present study suggests that the deep breathing technique is effective in the management of craving and anxiety symptoms in crack-cocaine-dependent patients.

Keywords : Crack-cocaine; substance withdrawal syndrome; anxiety.

        · abstract in Portuguese     · text in English | Portuguese     · Portuguese ( pdf epdf )


Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License