História (São Paulo)
On-line version ISSN 1980-4369
MAGALHAES, Ana Paula Tavares. O papado avinhonense e os poderes civis: as décadas de 30 e de 40 do século XIV a partir de três obras de Guilherme de Ockham. História [online]. 2008, vol.27, n.2, pp. 223-251. ISSN 1980-4369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-90742008000200011.
The denial of the so-called pope's plenitude potestatis by the English Franciscan William of Ockham belongs historically to the great movement of the fall of the Empire as a universal power, and the progressive search for laicization of political problems. Such a movement occurred between the 13th and 14th centuries, and resulted in changes in the conception of papal authority. Thus, controversies between regnum and sacerdotium would change into conflicts between the pope and the rising monarchies such as the King of France evident in the dispute between Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France. Furthermore the new solutions would become more favorable toward civil powers than toward papal authority. A notable aspect of the growth of the power and prestige of the monarchies was the actual transference of the papacy to the French city, Avignon, while under the power of Pope Clement V in the year 1309. This pope heeded well to the will of King Philip IV of France, who, as his successors that followed, used the Catholic Church against his political enemies. One of the highest points of this alliance occurred during the pontificate of Clement VI (1342-1352), who supported the French King, Philip VI, against his cousin, the English King, Edward III, during the Hundred Years' War; and finally, his hostility contributed to the fall of the Emperor, Ludwig the Bavarian. In this work, I evaluate the relationship between the Avignon papacy and civil powers (the Kingdoms of France and England, and the Empire) during the thirties and the forties of the 14th century. In addition, we will analise the works: Can the Ruler, Advice about a Marriage Case, and On the Power of the Emperors and the Pontiffs by William of Ockham.
Keywords : The Avignon papacy; Ludwig the Bavarian; the Kingdom of France.