versão impressa ISSN 0102-0536
BORDALLO, Patricia N. et al. Somaclonal variation on in vitro callus culture potato cultivars. Hortic. Bras. [online]. 2004, vol.22, n.2, pp. 300-304. ISSN 0102-0536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-05362004000200027.
Synthetic seeds can be an alternative for those species in which botanical seeds are not viable. One of the major problems of in vitro plant cultivation is the high level of somaclonal variation. The most common factors affecting somaclonal variation are genotype, explant source, in vitro period and cultivation conditions in which the culture is established. In this work, calli were induced using leaf and stem explants of the commercial potato cultivars Achat, Baraka, Baronesa, Bintje, and Contenda in MS culture media supplemented with 1.65 mM of picloram and 11.5 mM of 2,4-D. Seventy and 90 days after induction, DNA samples of 40 calli were compared concerning the effects of the two explant (leaf and stem) and two growth regulator sources on five potatoes cultivars. A total of 20 arbitrary sequence primers were evaluated. The RAPD pattern generated by these primers suggested a high percentage of polymorphic fragments among the five genotypes, indicating a high level of genetic variation among cultivars. Cultivar Baronesa showed the highest number of polymorphic fragments for all treatments. The cultivar Contenda showed the smallest somaclonal variation, for most of the treatments, except for the treatment which consisted of stem explants, picloram (1.65 mM) application, and a 70-day period of callus formation. 'Contenda' is, therefore, the most suitable cultivar for synthetic seed production.
Palavras-chave : Solanum tuberosum L.; synthetic seed; genetic variation; 2,4-dichloro phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); picloram.