Print version ISSN 0102-0536
AVILA, Antônio Carlos de; MELO, Paulo Eduardo de; LEITE, Lindolfo R and INOUE-NAGATA, Alice K. Virus occurrence in potatoes in seven Brazilian States. Hortic. Bras. [online]. 2009, vol.27, n.4, pp. 490-497. ISSN 0102-0536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-05362009000400015.
Viruses are responsible for the quick degeneration of potato seed-tubers. In the tropics, where aphid vectors are constantly present and the structure of virus populations is dynamic, the disease pressure is enormous. Therefore, the knowledge of such dynamics is definitely an extremely valuable tool towards the sustainability of the national potato production. In this study, we report a broad survey of virus occurrence in potato, in Brazil. In addition, we studied the distribution of the Potato virus Y (PVY) strains associated with mosaic symptoms on potatoes. In 2005 and 2006, we visited potato fields in seven Brazilian States. We collected leaves of symptomatic plants (1,256 samples) and also at random (360 samples). In addition, in several fields a visual assessment was carried out to estimate mosaic and leafroll incidence. From the 1,256 samples with symptoms, 840 tested serologically were positive to PVY (66.9%), 128 to PLRV (10.2%), 79 to PVS (6.3%), and none to PVX. Serology using DAS-ELISA and also biological and RT-PCR tests revealed an almost exclusive occurrence of the PVY necrotic strain, predominantly the necrotic subgroup PVYNTN. The analysis of a sub-sample representing all surveyed Counties indicated that the necrotic strain was universally present. Cultivars Asterix, Atlantic, Agata, Achat, Baronesa, Baraka, Bintje, Caesar, Cupido, Marijke, Monalisa, Panda, and Vivaldi, although displaying different susceptibility levels, were all infected by PVYNTN. The analysis of leaves collected at random showed similar results. PLRV was identified in four States (Minas Gerais, Bahia, Paraná, and Santa Catarina), while PVS was present in the State of São Paulo as well. PVX was found in only one sample collected at random in Serra do Salitre, State of Minas Gerais. The contrast between visual evaluation and the results of the detection test by ELISA strongly indicated the presence of a relevant rate of PVY latent infection on cultivar Asterix.
Keywords : Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum; RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction); DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich- Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay); PVY; PLRV; PVS.