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Cadernos de Saúde Pública

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NORONHA, Tatiana Guimarães de  and  CAMACHO, Luiz Antonio Bastos. Controversies in the expansion of areas with routine yellow fever vaccination in Brazil. Cad. Saúde Pública [online]. 2017, vol.33, n.10, e00060917.  Epub 06, 2017. ISSN 1678-4464.

Yellow fever is a potentially severe viral disease transmitted by mosquitos of the genera Haemagogus, Aedes, and Sabethes. Vaccination is the most important measure for prevention and control of the disease. This article analyzes the immunization guidelines in Brazil based on epidemiology of the disease in recent decades. Considering the ease of human movement into areas at risk of transmission and the tendency for these areas to expand, in time the entire country will probably need to adopt routine vaccination. However, in the decision on expanding the target population for vaccination, vaccine safety issues have been emphasized. We present a risk-benefit analysis of vaccination and strategies for controlling the disease and preventing its urbanization in regions where the vaccine is still not recommended. We conclude that inclusion of the yellow fever vaccine on the childhood immunization schedule is a proactive, easily operationalized strategy as a response to the increase in the number of cases of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil, and an attempt at preventing re-urbanization of the disease.

Keywords : Yellow Fever Vaccine; Yellow Fever; Immunization Programs.

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