Acta Botanica Brasilica
Print version ISSN 0102-3306
OLIVEIRA, Sarah Christina Caldas et al. Phytochemistry of Solanum lycocarpum A.St.-Hil (Solanaceae) leaves and their application in allelopathy. Acta Bot. Bras. [online]. 2012, vol.26, n.3, pp. 607-618. ISSN 0102-3306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062012000300010.
Solanum lycocarpum A.St.-Hil (Solanaceae) is a typical shrub in the Cerrado of central Brazil. The allelopathic activity of aqueous extracts of the leaves and fruits of this species has already been proven in previous studies. The goal of this work was to verify the allelopathic activity of different leaf extracts of S. lycocarpum on the germination and growth of four target species. The leaves were collected, dried, triturated and submitted to two distinct methods of extraction: 1- liquid-liquid (ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) from the aqueous extract and 2- with solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water) directly from the leaves. Each extraction was made with ultrasound equipment for one hour, filtered and evaporated. From these extracts, solutions of 800, 400 and 200 ppm were prepared, and water and Logran® were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Each solution, as well as the controls, was dissolved in DMSO for the bioassays. The target species used were lettuce, watercress, tomato and onion. To each plate, 20 seeds were added and 1 mL of the tested solutions (with 4 repetitions). The plates were incubated at 25 ºC without light, and the shoots and roots of the seedlings were then measured and the percentage of germination and the inhibition of each extract were calculated. Tomato was the most sensitive to the extracts, followed by watercress, onion and lettuce. The extracts with stronger activity were AcOEt, acetone and the liquid-liquid extraction, indicating the fractions that may contain the active principles of the leaves in this species.
Keywords : Allelopathy; Cerrado; lobeira; allelochemicals; bioassay.