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Jornal de Pneumologia
On-line version ISSN 1678-4642
PINCELLI, Mariangela Pimentel et al. Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome. J. Pneumologia [online]. 2003, vol.29, n.5, pp. 309-323. ISSN 1678-4642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-35862003000500011.
Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome is a recently identified and often fatal disease, which presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since the first outbreak, in Nov/Dec 1993, in Juquitiba, Brazil, 226 cases have been registered by FUNASA (National Health Foundation).(4) The disease occurs in previously healthy subjects, presenting with fever and symptoms similar to the common cold, and may rapidly evolve to pulmonary edema, respiratory failure and shock. Hemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia are common features, and the typical radiological finding is a bilateral diffuse interstitial infiltrate that evolves to alveolar consolidations in parallel to the worsening of the clinical condition. Initially, mortality was around 75%, but it declined to approximately 35% in the last few years. Patients who survive usually recover completely, about a week after the onset of the respiratory symptoms. The causal agent is a previously unrecognized hantavirus whose natural reservoirs are rodents of the family Muridae, sub-family Sigmodontinae. Specific antiviral treatment for hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome has not yet been well established, and the efficacy of ribavirin is currently being studied. Intensive care, including mechanical ventilation and invasive hemodynamic monitoring, is required for the more severe presentations of the disease. These measures may improve the prognosis and survival of patients with hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome if started early in the course of the disease.
Keywords : Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [diagnoses]; Hantavirus infections [diagnoses]; Brazil.