Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular
On-line version ISSN 1678-9741
MOREIRA, Luiz Felipe P. et al. Prognostic factors in the follow-up of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy submitted to partial left ventriculectomy. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc [online]. 2001, vol.16, n.4, pp. 275-288. ISSN 1678-9741. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-76382001000400002.
OBJECTIVE: Partial left ventriculectomy has been performed in patients with severe cardiomyopathies. The purpose of this investigation is to document the clinical effects of this procedure, associated with mitral insufficiency correction, in 43 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Eighteen patients were in New York Heart Association class III and 25 were in persistent class IV. Seven of these patients were operated on in cardiogenic shock. The procedure was associated with mitral anuloplasty in 32 patients and with mitral replacement in three. Ten patients were also submitted to De Vega tricuspid valve anuloplasty. Automatic cardioverter-defibrillators were implanted in 12 patients. RESULTS: Nine (20.9%) patients died during the hospital period. The follow-up time ranged from two to 57 months, with a mean of 28.3 months. At six months of follow-up, eight patients were in functional class I, 13 patients in class II, three patients in class III e one patient in class IV (p<0.001). On the other hand, nine patients died during the first six months and other ten in the later postoperative period. Actuarial survival rates were 58?(?7% at one year, 48?(?7% at two years and 32 (?8% at five years of follow-up. Stepwise logistic regression demonstrated that six-month survival was significantly affected by the degree of myocytes hypertrophy. The Cox proportional-hazards analysis showed that preoperative functional class and nor-epinephrine levels were significantly associated with a long-term unfavorable outcome. When that analysis also included anatomicopathological variables, the existence of apoptotic myocardial cells and of more important myocytes hypertrophy were identified as the unique independent predictors of poor outcome. Patients operated in functional class III or IV presented survival rates of 60 ±?11% and of 14 (?8% at five years, respectively. In the presence of myocardial cells apoptosis, the survival was 8?(?7% at the same period, where as it was 63 (11% in the absence of that alteration. CONCLUSION: Partial left ventriculectomy, associated, when necessary, with mitral insufficiency correction, improves LV function and ameliorates congestive heart failure in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. However, this procedure clinical application is limited by the high mortality observed in the first postoperative months and by the possibility of heart failure progression and of arrhythmia related events at the late follow-up. These facts seem to be influenced by myocardial cells compromise and by patients' preoperative condition.
Keywords : Cardiomyopathy [congestive]; Cardiomyopathy [surgery]; Cardiac surgical procedures [methods]; Heart ventricle [surgery].