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Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular
On-line version ISSN 1678-9741
COSTA, Francisco et al. Ten years experience of aortic valve replacement with aortic homograft root replacement. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc [online]. 2006, vol.21, n.2, pp. 155-164. ISSN 1678-9741. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-76382006000200008.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imediate and late results of 10 years of aortic valve root replacement with aortic homografts and to identify possible risk factors related with homograft primary tissue failure. METHODS: Between May 1995 and January 2006, 282 patients with a mean age of 52.8±16.6 years were submitted to aortic valve root replacement with an aortic homografts. The most prevalent etiologies were calcified bicuspid aortic valves and senile degeneration, corresponding to 49% of the cases. Forty-seven patients were reoperations and acute bacterial endocarditis were present in 26. Associated procedures were necessary in 113 patients. The homograft was implanted as a root replacement in all. Follow-up time varied between 1 and 129 months (mean= 41±25 months). RESULTS: Early overall mortality was 7%, with only 2.6% for cases of aortic valve replacement in isolation. Of the 262 patients discharged from hospital, it was possible to obtain clinical and echocardiographic evaluations in 209. Fifty-one patients (20%) were lost in the follow-up. There were 17 late deaths between the 2nd and 81st postoperative months, which resulted in an actuarial survival rate of 90% and 80.1% at 5 and 10 years respectively. There were eight thromboembolic events (four early and four late), for a linearized incidence of 0.3% events/100 patients/year. Bacterial endocarditis occurred in three occasions (0.4%/100 patients/year). Nine patients were re-operated, of which only three were related to the homograft (one case of primary tissue failure and two of bacterial endocarditis), corresponding to a probability of 94% of the patients free from this complication at 10 years of follow-up. Late echocardiographic analysis demonstrated maximum gradients varying between 3 and 47 mmHg (mean= 14.5 mmHg), with only two patients having a maximum gradient greater than 40 mmHg. Moderate valvar insufficiency was present in four cases. CONCLUSIONS: The early and late results of aortic valve root replacement with aortic valve homografts were excellent, with a good functional recovery and low late morbimortality. The only risk factor for primary tissue failure was age below 20 years at the time of the operation. Aortic homografts are an excellent option for over 40-year-old patients, especially for those who have contraindications or do not warrant anticoagulation.
Keywords : Aortic valve; surgery; Prostheses and implants; Transplantation; homologous.