Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica
Print version ISSN 0102-7972
CASTRO, Fabiano dos Santos and LANDEIRA-FERNANDEZ, J.. Soul, mind and brain in pre-history and early human civilizations. Psicol. Reflex. Crit. [online]. 2010, vol.23, n.1, pp. 141-152. ISSN 0102-7972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722010000100017.
Currently, the debate about the nature of the human mind is taking new directions through the development of several studies in the field of neuroscience which investigates the location of brain functions. These studies have contributed to a better understanding of the neural substrates of mental functions and the etiology of various mental disorders. However, the knowledge developed by neuroscience did not occur abruptly. Indeed, the study of mind-brain relationship is not new. From pre-history to the present days, various different types of inquiries have been made about the possible materiality and location of human mental functions. This paper presents, in a historic manner, how prehistoric populations as well as early civilizations located in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China developed and employed concepts related to the soul, the mind and the human brain.
Keywords : Mind-body relationships; Ancient civilizations; History of Neuroscience.