Print version ISSN 0102-8529
NASCIMENTO, Daniela. Sudan: between the promise of peace in the south and the uncertainty of war in Darfur. Contexto int. [online]. 2009, vol.31, n.3, pp.429-458. ISSN 0102-8529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-85292009000300002.
For more than two decades, Sudan has experienced a particularly violent conflict, opposing the northern Arab Muslim dictatorial government and the southern Christian and animist rebels. Often considered as an example of the "clash of civilisations" predicted by Samuel Huntington (1996), the sudanese conflict hides, however, a much more complex reality characterised by deep political and socioeconomic inequalities and asymmetries. For the biggest country in Africa, the promises of peace came with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in 9 January, 2005. Putting an end to an equally long and complex peace process, this Agreement is an ambitious one, including several protocols on power and wealth-sharing and allowing, for the first time, for a possible secession of the south, through a referendum to be held at the end of a six-year interim period, during which there will be a govern of national unity. But peace in Sudan is still uncertain, made difficult by the many obstacles to the implementation of the Agreement and challenged by a genocidal violence in Darfur and an increasing instability in the eastern regions. Through a more rigorous analysis of the complexities of war and peace in Sudan, this paper aims at evaluating the recent developments of the peace process and understanding the challenges posed to the prospects of a more peaceful and prosperous future in the country.
Keywords : Peace; Conflicts; Conflict Resolution; Peace Process.