Revista Paulista de Pediatria
Print version ISSN 0103-0582
KINCHOKU, Vanessa Mika et al. Factors associated with asthma control in a pediatric reference center. Rev. paul. pediatr. [online]. 2011, vol.29, n.4, pp. 591-598. ISSN 0103-0582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-05822011000400019.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological and clinical data and factors associated with asthma control of asthmatic patients followed at a pediatric reference center. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including asthmatic outpatients receiving prophylactic medications from the institution. For classification of asthma, steps of treatment and control evaluation, the IV Brazilian Guidelines for the Management of Asthma (2006) were adopted. The presence of other allergies, obesity, immunodeficiency, gastroesophageal reflux and allergic sensitization were evaluated and compared between patients with or without asthma control according to the treatment step, obesity and allergic sensitization. RESULTS: 300 patients with asthma (1.38M:1F) were included; median age=10.8 years; median age at onset of symptoms=1.0 year. Among parents and/or siblings, 78% reported atopy. Personal history showed other allergic diseases in 292 patients (96% rhinitis, 27% atopic dermatitis, 18% allergic conjunctivitis, 6% food allergy). IgA deficiency was diagnosed in seven cases and IgG2 deficiency in four. Obesity was noted in 34/233 patients (15%) and overweight/obesity were associated with asthma poor control (p<0.023). Among 118 patients multisensitizated, the frequency of poor asthma control was greater (22 (19%) cases; p=0.049, OR 1.9; 95%CI 1.03-3.50). Among the patients, 180 (60%) were treated according steps 3 and 4; 122 children (45%) were considered controlled and 112 (41%) were partially controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinitis was the allergic disease more associated with asthma. The prevalence of IgA deficiency was 20 times higher than in the general population. Total or partial control of asthma symptoms was obtained in 85% of the cases. Overweight/obesity and multisensitization were associated to poor asthma control.
Keywords : asthma; adolescent; therapeutics; obesity.