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Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal

Print version ISSN 0103-3131


MACEDO, CRISTIANE ELIZABETH COSTA DE; KINET, JEAN MARIE  and  LUTTS, STANLEY. Aluminum effects on citric and malic acid excretion in roots and calli of rice cultivars. Rev. Bras. Fisiol. Veg. [online]. 2001, vol.13, n.1, pp.13-23. ISSN 0103-3131.

Citric and malic acid excretion in the medium and malic acid accumulation in seedling roots and embryo-derived calli as possible mechanisms of aluminum (Al) resistance  and the effects of a 17-h Al stress period on root growth in Oryza sativa have been studied. Four-day-old seedlings and embryo-derived calli of Al-resistant (IRAT 112 and IR6023) and Al-sensitive (Aiwu and IKP) cultivars were treated with 250 and 500 µM {Al2(S04)3.18H20 }of total aluminum or without Al for 36 hours. After 3 to 36 hours of stress, seedlings and calli were removed from the flasks and concentration of citric and malic acids was estimated in the Al and control solutions. Malic acid was also assayed in roots tips and in callus tissues. After 17-h of Al stress, inhibition of root growth was a typical effect of Al in rice and the extent of the inhibition depended on both cultivar and Al concentration. At 500 µM of Al, strong reduction of root elongation occurred in all cultivars while at 250 µM of Al, only IRAT was unaffected, when compared to their control. In the absence of Al, all varieties excreted comparable amounts of citric and malic acid. Al treatments, were without effect upon citrate excretion in both Al-resistant and Al-sensitive cultivars. Al treatment, for periods from 3 to 24h, slightly stimulated the excretion of malic acid from seedlings, in all cultivars. Malic acid concentrations in root apices, in the presence or absence of aluminum, were not correlated with aluminum resistance. No differences in malic excretion and internal concentrations were detected between Al-treated and untreated rice calli of the same four cultivars. It is therefore concluded that, in our experimental conditions, differences in Al resistance in our rice cultivars cannot be attributed to citric and malic acids. Further research needs to be carried out to examine other possible mechanisms of Al-resistance in rice and to determine whether organic acids such as succinic and oxalic acid are implicated.

Keywords : malate; citrate; mechanisms Al resistance; Al detoxification; internal tolerance.

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