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COSTA E SILVA, Alberto da. O Brasil, a África e o Atlântico no século XIX. Estud. av. [online]. 1994, vol.8, n.21, pp.21-42. ISSN 1806-9592.

Until the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the European presence in Africa was confined to a few coastal spots. Throughout its large extension, Africa was ruled by Africans. The African continent was divided into empires, kingdoms and city-states. On the Atantic side, there were strong ties between those African politican structures and Brazil. What was happening on one side of the ocean reflected on the other. The antislavery crusade led to a new European imperialism. The occupation of Africa by the European powers dindn't succeed in destroying many of these local political structures. Some of diem worked as middlemen between colonizers and Africans, while others kept themselves in covert forms. The colonial occupation caused the almost total severance of the old and strong relations with Brazil.

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