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Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
versión impresa ISSN 0103-507X
CAMPOS, Brenno Belazi Nery de Souza y MACHADO, Fabio Santana. Nutrition therapy in severe head trauma patients. Rev. bras. ter. intensiva [online]. 2012, vol.24, n.1, pp.97-105. ISSN 0103-507X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-507X2012000100015.
This article reviews the literature, organizes the major findings, and generates the best evidence-based recommendations on nutrition therapy for head trauma patients. Despite recent advances in head trauma diagnosis and therapy, the mortality associated with this condition remains high. Few therapeutic interventions have been proven to effectively improve this condition. Head trauma causes multiple metabolic and electrolytic disorders; it is characterized by a hypermetabolic state that is associated with intensive catabolism, leading to specific nutritional needs. The current literature lacks specific guidelines for nutrition therapy in severe head trauma patients, although a substantial amount of data has been reported and relevant issues are currently being studied; these data may allow better nutrition therapy guidelines for these patients. In addition to a well-trained multi-disciplinary team, the following recommendations appear to improve outcomes: introducing nutrition therapy early; preferred enteral administration; appropriate energy intake; formulations that are tailored to specific patients, including appropriate nutrients; and strict electrolytic and metabolic monitoring. Understanding the pathophysiology and the consequences of therapy is fundamental.
Palabras clave : Craniocerebral trauma; Brain injuries; Nutrition therapy; Nutritional support; Enteral nutrition; Parenteral nutrition.