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Ciência Rural

versão On-line ISSN 1678-4596


MEYER, Geraldine de Andrade et al. Methodology to determine abscission zone in apple trees. Cienc. Rural [online]. 2014, vol.44, n.6, pp.982-986. ISSN 1678-4596.

Studies about anatomical and ontogeny of leaf abscission in pome fruit trees are scarce. The leaf fall occurs after the abscission zone is promoted, being a natural process in pome fruit, and it lasted from the fall until the first frost in southern Brazil. It is not known yet how long the leaves of apple trees remained functional. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to study the beginning and the end zones of leaf abscission of Galaxy and Fuji apple trees. The study was conducted in commercial apple orchards in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul. The proposed method consisted of collecting branches to 10cm to 20cm in length, and use a segment containing a portion of the stem, an axillary bud and the base of the petiole, discarding the part of the four-leaf apex. The segments were fixed, sectioned and stained for observation of the abscission zone in optical microscopy. The methodology allowed the understanding of the abscission zone on apple trees. The abscission zone was formed by elongated cells with thin walls, presenting cell wall lignification. The process kept the bud intact and occurred from the adaxial to abaxial surface. The natural leaf abscission in Galaxy and Fuji plants without symptoms of disease and favorable environmental conditions , can be accompanied by 7 and 14 days before and after harvest, and after intervals of 14 and 21 days until May. From May, collections should be weekly. This information will be useful in making a decision to carry out cultural practices and / or chemical control, for the maintenance of healthy leaves, resulting in greater accumulation of carbohydrate reserves and / or reducing the number of fungicide applications.

Palavras-chave : apple; leaf fall; lignifications.

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