On-line version ISSN 1678-992X
CARGNIN, Adeliano; SOUZA, Moacil Alves de; FRONZA, Vanoli and FOGACA, Cláudia Martellet. Genetic and environmental contributions to increased wheat yield in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) [online]. 2009, vol.66, n.3, pp. 317-322. ISSN 1678-992X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162009000300006.
Producers need wheat cultivars adapted to the predominant climate conditions of the end of the rainy period. Having this in mind, EPAMIG (Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute of Minas Gerais) has been developing a wheat genetic improvement program since 1976, and the estimates of the genetic improvement established by the breeding programs could be useful to quantify their efficiency. This study focused on the quantification of the genetic progress achieved by these improvement programs of dryland wheat in the Brazilian-savanna between 1976 and 2005. The efficiency of these programs was evaluated based on grain yield data of VCU (Value for Cultivation and Use) trials conducted at ten locations in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The mean estimated genetic progress for mean grain yield between 1976 and 2005 was 37 kg ha-1 year-1. The genetic yield gain in the study period indicates that the improvement programs of dryland wheat in the Brazilian-savanna are effective. Besides the marked contribution of genetic gain, the environmental and technological improvements were also relevant for the yield, accounting for 47.4% of the total progress in the period. The improvement programs of dryland wheat resulted in a genotype renovation rate of 35% over the years.
Keywords : Triticum aestivum L.; genotype evaluation; breeding program; genetic gain.