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HORMAZA, Paola; FUQUEN, Eloina Mesa and ROMERO, Hernán Mauricio. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis. Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) [online]. 2012, vol.69, n.4, pp.275-280. ISSN 0103-9016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-90162012000400007.
Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis) and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth) Cortés). This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering) and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs) because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD). The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.
Keywords : BBCH scale; degree-days; phenophase.