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Scientia Agricola

Print version ISSN 0103-9016On-line version ISSN 1678-992X

Abstract

RAMOS, Júlio César et al. Water erosion in surface soil conditions: runoff velocity, concentration and D50 index of sediments in runoff. Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) [online]. 2016, vol.73, n.3, pp.286-293. ISSN 0103-9016.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-9016-2015-0110.

Water erosion and contamination of water resources are influenced by concentration and diameter of sediments in runoff. This study aimed to quantify runoff velocity and concentration and the D50 index of sediments in runoff under different soil surface managements, in the following treatments: i) cropped systems: no-tilled soil covered by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCR); no tilled soil covered by vetch (Vicia sativa L.) residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCV); chiseled soil after ryegrass crop removing the above-ground residues and keeping only the root system, with high roughness (HRR); chiseled soil after vetch crop removing the above-ground residues and keeping only the root system, with high roughness (HRV); ii) bare and chiseled soil, with high roughness (BHR). The research was conducted on a Humic Dystrupept under simulated rainfall. The design was completely randomized and each treatment was replicated twice. Eight rainfall events of controlled intensity (65 mm h−1) were applied to each treatment for 90 minutes. The D50 index, runoff velocity and sediment concentration were influenced by crop and soil management. Runoff velocity was more intensely reduced by cover crop residues than by surface roughness. Regardless of surface condition, the D50 index and concentration of sediment in runoff were lower under ryegrass than vetch crop. Runoff velocity and the D50 index were exponentially and inversely correlated with soil cover by residues and with surface roughness, while the D50 index was positively and exponentially correlated with runoff velocity.

Keywords : hydric; erosion; soil management; conservation tillage.

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