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Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Print version ISSN 0104-4230
HEILBERG, Ita Pfeferman and SCHOR, Nestor. Diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. [online]. 2003, vol.49, n.1, pp. 109-116. ISSN 0104-4230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302003000100043.
A review about recent aspects on diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection (UTI) is presented. There is a wide variation in clinical presentation of UTI which include different forms as cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethral syndrome and the clinical relevance of asymptomatic bacteriuria and low-count bacteriuria that must be distinguished from contamination. Pathogenetic aspects concerning bacterial virulence as well as host factors in susceptibility to UTI as urinary tract obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, indwelling bladder catheters, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, sexual activity, contraceptive methods, prostatism, menopause, advanced age and renal transplantation are discussed. Diagnostic criteria and the most common tests utilized for differentiation between lower and upper UTI have been reviewed. The authors conclude that a careful evaluation of the underlying factors is required for the correct diagnosis of UTI and to prevent recurrence and that appropriate strategies and specific therapeutic regimens may maximize the benefit while reducing costs and adverse reactions.
Keywords : Urinary infection; Asymptomatic bacteriuria; Cystitis; Pyelonephritis; Urethral syndrome.