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Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira

versão impressa ISSN 0104-4230versão On-line ISSN 1806-9282

Resumo

LEWASCHIW, Elaine Milani; PEREIRA, Irla Abadia  e  AMARAL, José Luiz Gomes do. The effect of oral ondansetron in the prevention of postoperative náusea and vomiting. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. [online]. 2005, vol.51, n.1, pp.35-40. ISSN 0104-4230.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302005000100017.

OBJECTIVES: Not so many years ago, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting used to reach 40% to 50%. More recent publications indicate that this complication still reaches considerable frequency: 20 to 30%. The present study had the objective of evaluating the impact of oral administration of ondansetron on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting among patients submitted to general anesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. It included 178 patients divided into two groups: Ondansetron (n = 89) and Placebo (n = 89). Fast-dissolving oral tablets specially prepared for this study were utilized. The medication was administered between 60 and 30 minutes before anesthesia was induced. Factors with possible influence on the event were noted down, such as gender, age, history of dyskinesia or postoperative nausea and vomiting, smoking, type of surgery, body mass index, reversal of neuromuscular blockade using neostigmine, and the severity of postoperative pain. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the characteristics of the groups regarding the factors annotated, except in relation to smoking and body mass index, which were greater in the Placebo group. These factors did not interfere in the analysis of the results. Postoperative nausea and vomiting were observed in 23 patients (26%) of the Ondansetron group and 38 patients (43%) of the Placebo group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Ondansetron, 16 mg orally, administered before the operation significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The simplicity of administration and low cost of this presentation justify the choice of this administration route.

Palavras-chave : Nausea; Vomiting; Antiemetics; Ondansetron.

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