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Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira

versão impressa ISSN 0104-4230versão On-line ISSN 1806-9282

Resumo

OLIVEIRA, Vilmar Marques de; ALDRIGHI, José Mendes  e  RINALDI, José Francisco. Current status of breast cancer chemoprevention. Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. [online]. 2006, vol.52, n.6, pp.453-459. ISSN 0104-4230.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-42302006000600028.

Chemoprevention is defined as the use of natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress or prevent carcinogenic progression of invasive cancer. Drugs that act as chemoprevention agents for breast cancer are divided into two major groups: drugs that prevent Estrogen Receptor (ER) - positive breast cancers [selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), aromatase inhibitors GnKH agonists and phytoestrogens] and drugs that prevent ER - negative breast cancers [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, retinoids, statins, receptor tyrosine, kinase inhibitors, monoclonal antibody against HER-2 and telomerase inhibitors]. Results from the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR), which compared the risk-reducing efficacy as well as toxicity of these two SERMs in a similar high-risk for breast cancer population, showed that Raloxifene is as effective as Tamoxifen in reducing the risk of non-invasive breast cancer (p=.83). It has a statistically significant lower risk of thromboembolic events and cataracts, however a non- statistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. Based on promising data involving reduction of contralateral breast cancer risk in adjuvant studies, several aromatase inhibitors, including letrozole, anastrozole and exemestane, are being included in trials to evaluate their efficacy in breast cancer prevention in both case-control and cohort studies As such randomized studies to confirm this efficacy are needed. Positive results of several recent clinical trials for preventing breast cancer in high-risk populations suggest that chemoprevention is a rational and attractive strategy.

Palavras-chave : Breast cancer; Chemoprevention; Tamoxifen; Raloxifene; Aromatase; Cyclooxygenase.

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