Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering
On-line version ISSN 0104-6632
PAVIANI, L. C. et al. Supercritical CO2 extraction of raw propolis and its dry ethanolic extract. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. [online]. 2012, vol.29, n.2, pp. 243-251. ISSN 0104-6632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-66322012000200005.
Three types of propolis extract were prepared and analyzed with respect to their global extraction yields and with respect to the concentration of the following markers: 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid; 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 4-methoxy-3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone. The extract EEP (ethanolic extract of propolis) was obtained by the conventional method from raw propolis using ethanol as solvent. The extracts (SFE) were obtained by supercritical solvent extraction from the raw propolis using supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2), with and without the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent. The fractionated supercritical extracts (FSCE) were obtained by fractionation (extract and raffinate) of the dry EEP with sc-CO2. EEP yields of 39.5% were obtained and maximum global extraction yields were 7.3% for SFE with no co-solvent, 51% for SFE with 15% ethanol and 18% for the FSCE extract fraction. The concentrations of the markers in the different extracts differed as a function of the operational parameters, indicating that the addition of co-solvent and the selectivity of sc-CO2 could be manipulated so as to obtain extracts with the yields and concentrations of interest.
Keywords : Brazilian propolis; Supercritical extraction; Artepillin C; Phenolic compounds.