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Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-4841
ROCHA, Fernando Passos da; MENEZES, Ana M. B.; ALMEIDA JUNIOR, Hiram Larangeira de and TOMASI, Elaine. Risk markers and risk factors for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma: a case-control study. An. Bras. Dermatol. [online]. 2004, vol.79, n.4, pp. 441-454. ISSN 1806-4841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962004000400006.
BACKGROUND: Incidence of cutaneous neoplasms is increasing worldwide and there is little information from South Brazil about its markers and premalignant lesions. OBJECTIVES: To identify the risk factors and dermatological risk markers for cutaneous malignancies. METHODS: A case-control study nested in a population-based prevalence survey was performed in adults aged 50 living in the urban area of Pelotas. In the prevalence study, a questionnaire was applied to identify possible malignant or premalignant lesions and these subjects were examined by two doctors (gold standard). A sub-sample of the persons who answered No to the questions was also sent to the Ambulatory for the same procedure. The sample was constituted of 288 persons: 74 cases and 214 controls. The number and the type of efflorescence was evaluated at the interview with the doctors. The questionnaire also investigated socioeconomic level, behavioral variables and skin examination. The measure of effect used was the Odds Ratio (OR); and to control confounding factors, logistic regression, with hierarchical pattern, was utilized. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis, the following variables remained significant: age 80 years (OR = 10.21), white skin (OR = 4.85), blond or red hair (OR = 3.69) and risk markers: solar elastosis (OR = 4.35), cutis rhomboidalis nuchae (OR = 2.88) and more than 10 melanoses on the back of the hands (OR = 6.0). CONCLUSION: Elderly individuals, with fair skin and hair, solar elastosis, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae and a great number of melanoses on the hands, are at high risk for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
Keywords : epidemiology; risk factors; skin neoplasms.