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Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-4841
SAMPAIO, Maria Carolina de Abreu; OLIVEIRA, Zilda Najjar Prado de and MIGUELEZ, Javier. Prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. An. Bras. Dermatol. [online]. 2007, vol.82, n.4, pp. 353-358. ISSN 1806-4841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962007000400009.
Prenatal diagnostic testing is indicated for some severe genodermatoses, such as recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Fetal skin biopsy was introduced in 1980, but it cannot be performed before 15th gestational week. Fetal DNA analysis is a precise method and can be performed earlier in pregnancy. However, the molecular basis of the genodermatoses must be known and it is essential to determine the gene mutations and/or informative markers in the families with a previously affected child. Fetal DNA can be obtained by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an alternative approach obviating the need for termination of pregnancy. It involves in vitro fertilization and genetic testing of embryos. However, this technique has been performed for genodermatoses in only a few reference centers. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive test, but has a limited use in prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses. Tridimensional ultrasonography usually establishes diagnosis late in pregnancy and there are only anecdotal reports of prenatal diagnosis of genodermatoses using this method.
Keywords : Amniocentesis; Chorionic villi sampling; Genetic diseases, inborn; Preimplantation diagnosis; Prenatal diagnosis; Ultrasonography.