Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-4841
SILVA, Lúcia Mensato Rebello da and CUNHA, Paulo Rowilson. Urbanization of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Campinas - Sao Paulo (SP) and region: problems and challenges. An. Bras. Dermatol. [online]. 2007, vol.82, n.6, pp.515-519. ISSN 1806-4841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962007000600003.
BACKGROUND - American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is ranked second among vector-transmitted zoonoses in Brazil. OBJECTIVES - This paper aims at verifying the distribution of this disease in Campinas-SP and surrounding region and to identify the main difficulties for preventive actions to this illness. METHODS - The Campinas area encloses 42 counties. Data from 1998 to 2004 were collected from the National System of Injuries and Notification in Campinas, from the Superintendence for the Control of Endemic Diseases and from the Center for Zoonoses. A literature review on the subject was performed. RESULTS - There were 458 reported endemic cases and most of them were found in the Campinas and Jundiaí metropolitan areas. ACL was predominant in urban areas (57%) and among males (62%). It was also observed in all age ranges, and among women and children. Among the known vector species, Lutzomyia intermedia sl, L. neivai, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. fisheri and L. pessoai were reported. CONCLUSIONS - Four hundred and fifty eight cases were reported, in 81% of the studied counties. The main difficulties in ACL control have been increasing vector adaptation to the peri-urban environment; the multiplicity of factors involved in its transmission and poor results of current control measures over disease progression. More research efforts are needed to understand the environmental and epidemiological features involved in ACL endemic progression, early diagnosis and treatment. Also important is an efficient notification system, as well as improved patient follow-up and educational programs.
Keywords : Epidemiology; Leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous; Psychodidae; Zoonoses.