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Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
On-line version ISSN 1806-4841
NEVES, Leandro Ourives et al. A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis. An. Bras. Dermatol. [online]. 2011, vol.86, n.6, pp.1092-1101. ISSN 1806-4841. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962011000600005.
FUNDAMENTALS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been performed to support their use. Moreover, treatment outcome may depend on the causative species of Leishmania. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine isethionate, and amphotericin B in the treatment of ATL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. METHODS: 185 patients were selected according to the eligibility criteria and randomly allocated into three groups - two groups with 74 patients each, and one group with 37 patients, which underwent meglumine, pentamidine and amphotericin B treatment, respectively. Doses, mode of administration and time periods of treatment followed the current recommendations for each drug. Patients were re-examined one, two and six months after completion of treatment. RESULTS: No differences were observed among the therapeutic groups in relation to gender, age, number or site of lesions. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed efficacy of 58.1% for pentamidine and 55.5% for meglumine (p=0.857). The amphotericin B group was analyzed separately, since 28 patients (75.7%) in this group refused to continue participating in the study. Mild or moderate adverse effects were reported by 74 (40%) patients, especially arthralgia (20.3%) in the meglumine group, and pain (35.1%) or induration (10.8%) at the site of injection in the pentamidine group. CONCLUSION: Pentamidine and meglumine show similar efficacy in the treatment of ATL caused by L. guyanensis. Given the low efficacy of both drugs, there is an urgent need for new therapeutical approaches.
Keywords : Amphotericin B; Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous; Meglumine; Pentamidine; Therapeutics.