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Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
On-line version ISSN 1809-4570
GLEZER, Andrea; PARAIBA, Diane Belchior and CARVALHO, Jozélio Freire de. The prolactin role in systemic lupus erythematosus: where we are. Rev. Bras. Reumatol. [online]. 2009, vol.49, n.2, pp. 153-157. ISSN 1809-4570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0482-50042009000200007.
Prolactin (PRL) is a fundamental hormone to galactopoiesis. Nevertheless, it has many other actions, including a cytokine that modulates immune system. Most of immune cells secretes PRL, which stimulates proliferation, differentiation and maturation of T and B lymphocytes, amplifies IL-2 action and inhibits lymphocytes apoptosis. There are many evidences of the role of PRL in physiopathology of autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as shown by data from epidemiologic and animal models studies, in vitro and in vivo. Monomeric PRL, the biologic active isoform, correlates positively to lupus activity, while macroprolactinemia, characterized by an autoantibody anti-PRL, correlates negatively. There are still some issues that deserve more studies: which is the PRL origin in hyperprolactinemic patients (pituitary versus extrapituitary)?; is PRL bioactivity increased?; is there any mutations or polymorphisms in PRL gene and PRL receptor gene?, can hyperprolactinemia treatment or PRL antagonist change SLE natural history?
Keywords : prolactin; hyperprolactinemia; systemic lupus erythematosus; cytokine; autoimmunity.