Psicologia em Estudo
versão impressa ISSN 1413-7372
NASCIMENTO, Adriano Roberto Afonso do; SOUZA, Lídio de e TRINDADE, Zeidi Araújo. "Exus" and "Pombas-Giras": the male and female in umbanda chants. Psicol. estud. [online]. 2001, vol.6, n.2, pp. 107-113. ISSN 1413-7372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-73722001000200015.
The aim of the present paper is the characterization of the Exus (male entities, loosely associated with the devil) and Pombas-Giras (female entities, the counterparts of the Exus) in the singing chants of the Umbanda religion, focusing on aspects, which relate to a broader configuration of components of the Brazilian social imagery. Two hundred and twenty one lyrics of Exu and Pomba-Gira chants were subjected to Content Analysis. Exu chants have a higher frequency of citations related to the description of power and functions attributed to this entity (31.6% of the answers) and to identification and greeting (22.4%). Pomba-Gira chants present most frequently the description of attributed power/functions (30.23% of the responses) and the entity characterization (30.23%). The results allow for associations of the entities characteristics and the socially expected roles of men and women. Exu is associated with freedom, force, and, mostly, industry. Pomba-Gira is represented by attributes considered typically feminine, such as beauty and sensuality, and also by industry. The data demand an analysis that seeks the articulation of racial factors and social classes present in Brazilian society and the defining characteristics of the entities, identified in the chants.
Palavras-chave : umbanda; stereotypes; gender.