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Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
On-line version ISSN 1678-4561
MATTOS, Rita de Cássia Oliveira da Costa et al. Evaluation of risk factors related to lead exposure in children and adolescents from Rio de Janeiro. Ciênc. saúde coletiva [online]. 2009, vol.14, n.6, pp. 2039-2048. ISSN 1678-4561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232009000600011.
The importance of atmospheric lead in environmental global contamination is receiving increasing scientific attention. The main exposure monitoring approach is biological, but the environmental one has a key role, since the environment is the major source of exposure. The study aimed to identify the contamination sources and potential risk factors of the exposure in a 64 subject group formed by 0-16 years-old children from an economically deprived community in Rio de Janeiro. Lead concentrations in soil, water, dust and air were determined and neurological and carcinogenic risk factors for ingestion and inhalation were calculated. Blood samples were collected and used in the analysis of Pb-B, ALA-D% and ALA-D genotyping. The observed neurological risk factor was 549 times higher than reference dose for dust and 554 times higher in the case of ingestion. The carcinogenic risk factor for ingestion was about 4 times. Mean Pb-B was 5.6μg/dL and 40% of the children presented Pb-B levels above the 6μg/dL cutoff value. Mean ALA-D% was 40.3% and a correlation between Pb-B and ALA-D% was observed. ALAD1-2 genotype was identified in 10% of the children. The results will allow the understanding of our reality, supporting public health and environment organizations to carry out control actions and all-encompassing environmental surveillance.
Keywords : Exposure; Lead; Risk; Children; Environmental health; Contamination.