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Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
On-line version ISSN 1678-4391
OPLUSTIL, Carmen Paz; NUNES, Rogério; MENDES, Caio and RESISTNET GROUP. Multicenter evaluation of resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated from clinical specimens in Brazil: RESISTNET surveillance program. Braz. j. infect. dis [online]. 2001, vol.5, n.1, pp. 8-12. ISSN 1678-4391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702001000100002.
Surveillance programs are essential to detect the increase of antimicrobial resistance, and several different programs are being conducted in many countries. The RESISTNET is a surveillance program for bacterial resistance against several antimicrobial agents initiated in 1998 among Latin American countries. In Brazil, several centers were invited to join this surveillance and a total of 11 centers (6 from São Paulo and 5 from other states) participated in the study. All results were analyzed using the WHONET program. A total of 894 Escherichia coli, 386 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 70 Shigella spp and 57 Salmonella spp strains were analyzed in this study from April, 1998, to April, 1999. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method using NCCLS 1998 guidelines for several different drugs. For all strains, imipenem was the most effective drug (100% of the strains were susceptible). Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (96.4%). The rate of probable ESBL producers among K. pneumoniae strains was 36.3%, most of them being isolated from catheters (58.8%). Among all Escherichia coli strains analyzed, the highest resistance rate was found for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46.9%) and the majority of the resistant strains were isolated from urine samples (47.8%). Among Salmonella spp, the resistance rates were low for all antibiotics tested. For Shigella spp strains there was a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.0%). No resistance to ceftriaxone was observed in these strains. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is critical for the successful management of infectious diseases. The results of this survey show significant resistance rates among these bacteria which are responsible for several types of human infections.
Keywords : Enterobacteria; antimicrobial resistance; surveillance programs; WHONET.