Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
On-line version ISSN 1678-4391
TITZE-DE-ALMEIDA, Ricardo et al. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococci recovered from Brazilian intensive care units. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2004, vol.8, n.3, pp. 197-205. ISSN 1678-4391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702004000300002.
We studied the antimicrobial resistance and the molecular epidemiology of 99 enterococcal surveillance isolates from two hospitals of Brasília, Brazil. Conventional biochemical tests were used to identify the enterococcal species and the disk diffusion method was used to determine their resistance profiles. Enterococcus faecalis (76%) and E. faecium (9%) were the most prevalent species. No enterococci showed the vanA or vanB vancomycin resistance phenotypes or genotypes. Only the intrinsically resistant species E. gallinarum (n=2) and E. casseliflavus (n=3) harbored the vancomycin-resistance genes vanC1 and vanC2/3, respectively. We found E. faecalis isolates with high-level resistance to gentamicin (22%) and streptomycin (8%) and both E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates with resistance to more than two antimicrobials (84% and 67%, respectively). Nine E. faecalis isolates (12%) were resistant to ampicillin; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 16µg/mL (n=6) and 32µg/mL (n=3). Among these ampicillin-resistant E. faecalis, seven were also resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, penicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis classified those isolates in three different genotypes, suggesting dissemination of genetically related ampicillin-resistant E. faecalis strains among different patients.
Keywords : Enterococci; antimicrobial resistance; genotyping.