Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
versão On-line ISSN 1678-4391
SENISE, J.F. et al. HIV-1 viremia during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy is not associated with mother-to-child transmission. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2006, vol.10, n.4, pp. 259-263. ISSN 1678-4391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702006000400009.
It is currently recommended that antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV be initiated at 14 weeks of gestation. However, the relevance of early-gestation HIV viral load level for intrauterine MTCT is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between prenatal maternal viral load and intrauterine MTCT. Records of HIV-infected pregnant women in two centers in Brazil, from 1999 to 2004 were analyzed. Three pregnancy periods were considered: earlier than 14 weeks, 14 to 27 6/7 weeks, and 28 weeks of gestation or more. Peripartum HIV exposure was also computed. Maximum viral load in each period was the measure of HIV exposure. Four hundred fifty-seven HIV-infected pregnant women were evaluated, but 53 were excluded. The MTCT rate was 0.49% (2/404-95% confidence interval (CI95) = 0.14-1.79%). Newborns were not breast-fed. Median viral load for the earlier-than-14-week period was 9,900 copies/mL (P25-75 1,000-50,775 copies/mL), 8,350 copies/mL (P25-75 707-42,000 copies/mL) for the 14 to 27 6/7-week period, and 435 copies/mL (P25-75 90-7,775 copies/mL) after the 28-week period. The peripartum median viral load was 400 copies/mL (P25-75 80-500 copies/mL). MTCT in mothers with VL > 1,000 copies/mL during the first 14 weeks (0.67%, 2/298) was not different from those with VL =1,000 copies/mL (0.0%, 0/96, P=1). Analogously, in the 14 to 27 6/7-week period, MTCT was similar in groups with VL higher (0.68%, 2/292) or lower (0%, 0/106) than 1,000 copies/mL (P=1). Regarding VL >1,000 copies/mL at 28-weeks-or-later and at peripartum periods, MTCT rates were 1.15% (2/173, P = 0.18) and 2.8% (2/71, P = 0.03), respectively. Intrauterine transmission does not seem to be influenced by HIV viremia during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy.
Palavras-chave : HIV-1; disease transmission; vertical transmission; antiretroviral therapy; highly active; Brazil; viral load.