Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Print version ISSN 1413-8670
MEDEIROS, Melissa Soares et al. Genotype testing and antiretroviral resistance profiles from HIV-1 patients experiencing therapeutic failure in northeast Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2007, vol.11, n.4, pp. 390-394. ISSN 1413-8670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-86702007000400003.
Genotype testing for HIV-1 drug resistance is useful for selecting antiretroviral drug regimens for patients experiencing therapeutic failure, but the optimal means for interpreting the test results is unknown because many HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations contribute to drug resistance. This study identified common combinations of resistance mutations related to antiretroviral resistance profiles. From April 2002 to March 2004, 101 protease and RT sequences were determined for HIV-1 isolates from patients who were failing antiretroviral therapy. The resistance profile was evaluated using the Stanford Database program. Male patients predominated (76.2%), the median age was 38 years, the average CD4 count was 279.21 cells/mm3 and the average viral load was 4.49 log. In relation to protease inhibitors (IP) 31 mutation patterns were detected, 49 mutation patterns were detected in Nucleoside RT Inhibitors (NRTI), and 17 patterns were found in the Non Nucleoside RT Inhibitors (NNRTI). K65R was detected in 5.9% of the isolates. The most frequent mutations were: L90M, M184V and K103N related to PI's, NRTI's and NNRTI's, respectively. The best antiretroviral susceptibility was found to be Lopinavir in the PI class and Tenofovir in the NRTI class. The top six mutation patterns accounted for 49% of the resistance to PI's, for 38.5% of NRTI resistance, and the top two mutation patterns accounted for 40.9% of resistance to NNRTI's.
Keywords : Genotype test; mutation; HIV-1; protease; reverse transcriptase; antiretrovirals, resistance.