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Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases

Print version ISSN 1413-8670

Abstract

METAN, Gökhan et al. Factors influencing the early mortality in haematological malignancy patients with nosocomial Gram negative bacilli bacteraemia: a retrospective analysis of 154 cases. Braz J Infect Dis [online]. 2013, vol.17, n.2, pp.143-149. ISSN 1413-8670.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2012.09.010.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the factors influencing the early mortality (7- day after index blood culture) in haematological malignancy patients with Gram negative bacilli (GNB) bacteraemia. METHODS: Infection control committee records were reviewed to identify the cases between March 2006 and June 2011. Only one bacteraemic episode per patient was included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients with GNB bacteraemia were identified. The early mortality rate was 19.5% (30 out of 154). Blood cultures revealed Enterobacteriacea in 120 patients (Escherichia coli; 86, Klebsiella spp.; 28, Enterobacter cloacea; 6) and glucose non-fermenting GNB in 34 patients (Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 15, Acinetobacter baumannii; 11, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; 7, Burkholderia cepacia; 1). Forty (33.3%) out of 120 Enterobacteriaceae were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers and 18 (52.9%) out of 34 glucose non-fermenting GNB were multidrug resistant. Carbapenems were administered as first line therapy in 139 out of 154 patients. In univariate analysis Pitt's bacteraemia score, presence of aplastic anaemia, bacteraemia caused by glucose non-fermentating GNB, inappropriate empirical antibacterial treatment, presence of severe sepsis or septic shock, unable to achieve microbiological cure, and intensive care unit (ICU) acquired bacteraemia were associated with mortality. Multivariate analysis showed ICU acquired bacteraemia (OR, 12.55; 95% CI, 2.34-67.38, p = 0.003) as an independent factor associated with early mortality. CONCLUSION: Haematological malignancy patients who require ICU care are at high risk for early mortality related to GNB bacteraemia. Based on the local findings pointing out high rate of multidrug resistance, carbapenems combined with colistin seems to be a reasonable approach as empirical treatment of these patients. However, increasing carbapenem resistance rate is of concern.

Keywords : Haematological malignancy; Bacteraemia; Gram negative bacilli; Mortality; Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; Intensive care unit; Multidrug resistance.

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