Ambiente & Sociedade
On-line version ISSN 1809-4422
FUTTEMA, Célia; CASTRO, Fábio de; SILVA-FORSBERG, Maria Clara and OSTROM, Elinor. The emergence and outcomes of collective action: an institutional and ecosystem approach. Ambient. soc. [online]. 2002, n.10, pp. 107-127. ISSN 1809-4422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-753X2002000100007.
Participation in collective action is frequently studied through a community-based analysis, with focus on the social features of the participants and on the ecological features of the managed system. This study addresses the importance of scaling down to household level to understand different individual incentives to collaborate (or not) as well as scaling up to the landscape level to evaluate the ecological outcome of the local forms of collective action. A study of a riparian community of 33 households in the Lower Amazon located between two distinct ecosystems -a privately owned upland forest and a communally owned floodplain- reveals that household-based analysis uncovers how heterogeneity within the community leads to different incentives for participation in the communal floodplain, while systemic analysis reveals that interconnection between the managed ecosystem and adjacent ecosystem influences the decisions to participate as well as the ecological outcomes of the collective actions.
Keywords : collective action; common-pool resource; ecosystem; floodplain; forest use; heterogeneity; Lower Amazon; property rights; social capital; upland.