Genetics and Molecular Biology
Print version ISSN 1415-4757
BAKARE, Adekunle A.; OKUNOLA, Alabi A.; ADETUNJI, Olusanmi A. and JENMI, Hafeez B.. Genotoxicity assessment of a pharmaceutical effluent using four bioassays. Genet. Mol. Biol. [online]. 2009, vol.32, n.2, pp. 373-381. ISSN 1415-4757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572009000200026.
Pharmaceutical industries are among the major contributors to industrial waste. Their effluents when wrongly handled and disposed of endanger both human and environmental health. In this study, we investigated the potential genotoxicity of a pharmaceutical effluent, by using the Allium cepa, mouse- sperm morphology, bone marrow chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays. Some of the physico-chemical properties of the effluent were also determined. The A. cepa and the animal assays were respectively carried out at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10%; and 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50% of the effluent. There was a statistically different (p < 0.05), concentration-dependent inhibition of onion root growth and mitotic index, and induction of chromosomal aberrations in the onion and mouse CA test. Assessment of sperm shape showed that the fraction of the sperm that was abnormal in shape was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than the negative control value. MN analysis showed a dose-dependent induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes across the treatment groups. These observations were provoked by the toxic and genotoxic constituents present in test samples. The tested pharmaceutical effluent is a potentially genotoxic agent and germ cell mutagen, and may induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals.
Keywords : genotoxicity; pharmaceutical effluent; mouse; Allium cepa; chromosome; spermatozoa; micronucleus.