Genetics and Molecular Biology
Print version ISSN 1415-4757
BELARMINO, Luis C. et al. Mining plant genome browsers as a means for efficient connection of physical, genetic and cytogenetic mapping: an example using soybean. Genet. Mol. Biol. [online]. 2012, vol.35, n.1, suppl.1, pp. 335-347. ISSN 1415-4757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572012000200015.
Physical maps are important tools to uncover general chromosome structure as well as to compare different plant lineages and species, helping to elucidate genome structure, evolution and possibilities regarding synteny and colinearity. The increasing production of sequence data has opened an opportunity to link information from mapping studies to the underlying sequences. Genome browsers are invaluable platforms that provide access to these sequences, including tools for genome analysis, allowing the integration of multivariate information, and thus aiding to explain the emergence of complex genomes. The present work presents a tutorial regarding the use of genome browsers to develop targeted physical mapping, providing also a general overview and examples about the possibilities regarding the use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC), simple sequence repeats (SSR) and rDNA probes, highlighting the potential of such studies for map integration and comparative genetics. As a case study, the available genome of soybean was accessed to show how the physical and in silico distribution of such sequences may be compared at different levels. Such evaluations may also be complemented by the identification of sequences beyond the detection level of cytological methods, here using members of the aquaporin gene family as an example. The proposed approach highlights the complementation power of the combination of molecular cytogenetics and computational approaches for the anchoring of coding or repetitive sequences in plant genomes using available genome browsers, helping in the determination of sequence location, arrangement and number of repeats, and also filling gaps found in computational pseudochromosome assemblies.
Keywords : gene families; FISH; BAC; SSR; aquaporin; bioinformatics.