Genetics and Molecular Biology
versão impressa ISSN 1415-4757
BISSO-MACHADO, Rafael; BORTOLINI, Maria Cátira e SALZANO, Francisco Mauro. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians. Genet. Mol. Biol. [online]. 2012, vol.35, n.2, pp. 365-387. Epub 10-Maio-2012. ISSN 1415-4757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572012005000027.
A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively) and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data.
Palavras-chave : genetics; language and geography; mitochondrial DNA; Native Americans; South Amerindians; Y-chromosome.